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    Trademark Symbols: TM, R, and C

    After registration in intellectual property, TM, R and C symbol are frequently used with a trademark or copyright The following are the common usages of these symbols:

    ™ – TM Symbol

    The TM symbol is used when an requisition for trademark is made with the trademark registry. The TM symbol is thus used to indicate the fact that a trademark application exists with respect to the trademark and serves as a warning for infringers and counter-fitters.

    SM Symbol

    Service Mark is a symbol used with trademark applications that are classified under class 35-45. Some applicants proffer to use TM symbol for trademark applications filed under class 1-34 and SM for trademark filed under class 35-45. Using the TM symbol for all classes or using an SM mark for trademark application under class 35-45 is acceptable.

    ® – R Symbol

    Trademark is registered, then the applicant can begin to use the ® symbol next to the trademark. The R symbol signifies that the trademark is registered and enjoys safety from infringement under the Trademark laws. Use of the ® symbol after filing a trademark application or without getting trademark registration is unlawful.

    ©- C Symbol

    C symbol prevails for copyright and is a restrained right notice regarding any work that can be copyrighted like artwork, photography, videography, books, literary works, etc. The C symbol is used alongside with the copyright holder name and the year of the first publication.  In some countries, the genuine use of the © symbol is must to claim copyright prevention. While the Berne Convention does require the use of the © symbol to claim copyright protection and India is a member of the Berne Convention. Hence, conception the use of the © symbol is not a statutory requirement puts infringers on notice.

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